INDIA is the seventh largest country in the world. It has the world's second largest population. It has achieved all-round socio-economic progress since Independence. India attained their Independence in 15th August 1947. Present-day India has made significant headway in large-scale industrialisation. India has become one of the top five industrialised nations of the world in terms of NICs ranking. It produces every conceivable industrial item and consumer goods, and has achieved significant success in frontier scientific research including peaceful application of nuclear energy, space and satellite research, communication technology and biotechnology. India also has the third largest reservoir of scientific and technological manpower.
Indians are generally friendly and informal. Many of them may not wait to be introduced in order to talk to the student. In buses and trains he may find people eager to talk. In cities and towns people tend to be a little reserved. In India, as elsewhere, certain customs are observed in social matters. When people are introduced to each other they usually say "Namaste", which is the most common form of greeting. The same form is used at parting as well. Both the hands are joined and raised in greeting. Some people also shake hands and use the English form of greeting like "Good Morning", "Good Afternoon" and "Good Evening". Women do not generally shake hands.
The climate of the country varies from region to region. In some places, including the coastal areas, the climate is almost uniform throughout the year. There are quite a few places in the country which have a moderate climate, such as towns in the North of the country or Bangalore in the South. On the other hand most areas are very hot in summer.
1. March to June : Summer
2. July to October : Monsoon
3. November to February : Winter
A good number of universities have a federal structure composed of affiliated colleges on one tier and the university departments on the other. The affiliated colleges teach, in general, undergraduate courses, whereas the university departments conduct postgraduate teaching and advanced research. The university decides the criteria of admission into colleges and coordinates the first degree examination in the undergraduate programmes and award of degree.
Most Indian universities are of affiliating types with larger ones like Mumbai and Bangalore, Calcutta having more than 300-400 affiliated college. They have a variable number of colleges affiliated to them; The colleges mostly do undergraduate teaching though some of them also have postgraduate courses in selected subjects.